Populism from the perspective of political philosophy
Current issues of modern political philosophy and ethno-national studies
The article is devoted to populism as a political phenomenon and as an object of analysis in po- litical theory. The focus is on the debate around the definition of populism. The article reviews various approaches to the study of populism, particularly ideological and discursive approaches. The author also analyses populism from the point of view of the normative theory of democracy and discusses the issue whether populism is a threat to liberal democracy or a correction of it. The problem of defining ‘the people’, a key populist concept, is considered separately, and it is concluded that nationalist and populist discourses essentially intersect, so it is impossible to separate them completely.
The article argues for a discursive approach to populism. Populism’s primary feature is a claim to speak in the name of the people. Populism is an element of the representative demo- cracy and represents both its constant potential and a menace to it. Populism also appeals to the claim for democratic legitimacy that is a basic normative demand in modern societies. It is logi- cal to consider populism not as the essential characteristic of a political actor (party, movement, leader) who is or is not a populistic but as the aggregation of the populist repertoire, a combina- tion of its elements and their orientation.
Arcimaviсien, L. (2019). Self and Other Metaphors as Facilitating Features of Populist Style in Diplomatic Discourse: A Case Study of Obama and Putin's Speeches, In: M. Macaulay (Ed.), Populist Discourse: International Perspectives. (pp. 89-124). S.l.: Palgrave, Macmillan.
Arditi, B. (2004). Populism as a Spectre of Democracy: A Response to Canovan. Political Studies, 52, 135-143.
Arditi, B. (2005). Populism as an Internal Periphery of Democratic Politics. In: F. Panizza (Ed.), Populism and the Mirror of Democracy (pp. 72-98). London: Verso.
Arditi, B. (2007). Politics on the Edges of Liberalism: Difference, Populism, Revolution, Agitation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Aslanidis, P. (2016). Is Populism an Ideology? A Refutation and a New Perspective. Political Studies, 64 (15), 88-104.
Bobbio, N. (1984). The Future of Democracy. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary, 61, 3-16.
Bonikowski, B., Gidron, N. (2019). Multiple Traditions in Populism Research: Toward a Theo- retical Synthesis. American Political Science Association (APSA) Comparative Politics Section Newsletter 'Symposium: Populism in a Comparative Perspective', 26 (2), 7-14.
Brubaker, R. (2017). Why Populism? Theory and Society, 46, 357-385.
Brubaker, R. (2019). Populism and Nationalism. Nations and Nationalism, April, 1-23. Canovan, M. (1981). Populism. New York: Harcourt Brace Javonovich.
Canovan, M. (1999). Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies, 47 (1), 2-16.
Canovan, M. (2002). Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. In: Y. Meny, Y. Surel (Eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge (pp. 25-44). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Colliot-Th l ne, C. (2019). Populism as a conceptual problem. In: G. Fitzi, J. Mackert, B.S. Turner (Eds.), Populism and the Crisis of Democracy. London, New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Dahl, R. (1956). A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press.
Diamond, L. (1996). Is the Third Wave Over? Journal of Democracy, 7 (3), 20-37.
Dornbusch, R., Edwards, S. (Eds.) (1991). The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Eatwell, R., Goodwin, M. (2018) National Populism: The Revolt Against Liberal Democracy. S.l.: Penguin Books Ltd.
Freeden, M. (1996). Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Freeden, M. (1998). Is nationalism a distinct ideology? Political Studies, 46 (4), 748- 65.
Freeden, M. (2003). Ideology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Galston, W.A. (2018). Anti-Pluralism: The Populist Threat to Liberal Democracy (Politics and Culture). Yale: Yale University Press.
Habermas, J. (2001). Constitutional Democracy: A Paradoxical Union of Contradictory Principles? Political Theory, 29 (6), 766-781.
Hawkins, K.A., Kaltwasser, C.R. (2017). The Ideational Approach to Populism. Latin American Research Review, 52 (4), 513-528.
Ionescu, G., Gellner, E. (1969). Introduction. In: G. Ionescu, E. Gellner (Eds.), Populism: Its meaning and National Character (pp. 1-5). London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson. Kaltwasser, K.R. (2013). Populism vs. Constitutionalism? Comparative Perspectives on Contemporary Western Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Retrieved from: https://www.fljs.org/files/publications/Kaltwasser.pdf.
Kazin, M. (1995). The Populist Persuasion: An American History. New York: Basic Books.
Laclau, E. (2005). On Populist Reason. London, New, York: Verso.
Laclau, E. (2005a). Populism: What's In a Name? In: F. Panizza (Ed.), Populism and the Mirror of Democracy (pp. 32-49). London: Verso.
Levitsky, S., Roberts, K.M. (2011). The Resurgence of the Latin American Left. Baltimore: JHU Press.
Meny, Y., Surel, Y. (2002). The Constitutive Ambiguity of Populism. In: Y. Meny, Y. Surel (Eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge. Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Mair, P. (2013). Ruling the Void: The Hollowing of Western Democracy. London, New York: Verso. Mouffe, C. (2018). For a Left Populism. London, New York: Verso.
Mounk, Y. (2018). The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press.
Mudde, C. (2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39 (4), 541-563. Mudde, C. (2017). Populism: An Ideational Approach. In: C.R. Kaltwasser, P. Taggart, P.O. Espejo, P. Ostiguy (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Populism. S.l.
Mudde, C., Kaltwasser, C.R. (2013). Populism: Corrective and Threat to Democracy. In: G. Mudde, C.R. Kaltwasser (Eds.). Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy (pp. 205-222). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mudde, C., Kaltwasser, C.R. (2017). Populism - A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Muller, J.-W. (2016). What Is Populism? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Pappas, T.S. (2019). Populism and liberal democracy: a comparative and theoretical analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Przeworski, A., Cheibub, J. A., Alvarez, M.E., Limongi, F. (2000). Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Material Well-being in the World, 1950-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Slobodian, Q., Plehwe, D. (2019). Neoliberals Against Europe. In: W. Callison, Z. Manfredi (Eds.), Mutant Neoliberalism: Market Rule and Political Rupture (pp. 89-111). S.l.: Fordham University Press.
Stanley, B. (2008). The Thin Ideology of Populism. Journal of Political Ideologies, 13(1), 95-110.
Stavrakakis, Y. (2004). Antinomies of formalism: Laclau's theory of populism and the lessons from religious populism in Greece. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9 (3), 253-267.
Stavrakakis, Y. (2014). The Return of "the People": Populism and Anti-Populismin the Shadow of the European Crisis. Constellations, 21 (4), 505-517.
Stavrakakis, Y. (2018). Three Challenges. In: Contemporary Populism Research. Retrieved from:
Taggart, P. (2000). Populism. Buckingham PA: Open University Press.
Taggart, P. (2002). Populism and the Pathology of Representative Politics. In: Y. M ny, Y. Surel (Eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Taguieff, P.-A. (2005). Populist Movements in Europe. In: L.B. Larsen, C. Ricupero, N. Schafhausen (Eds.), The Populism Reader (pp. 47-62). New York: Lukas & Sternberg,.
Talisse, R.B. (2005). Democracy After Liberalism: Pragmatism and Deliberative Politics. New York, London: Routledge.
Weyland, K. (2001). Clarifying a contested concept: Populism in the study of Latin American politics. Comparative Politics, 34 (1), 1-22.
Weyland, K. (2017). Populism: A Political-Strategic Approach. In: C.R. Kaltwasser, P. Taggart, P. Ochoa Espejo, P. Ostiguy (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wiles, P. (1969). A Syndrome, Not a Doctrine: Some Elementary Theses on Populism. In: G. Ionescu. E. Gellner (Eds.), Populism: Its Meanings and National Characteristics (pp. 166-179). London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson.
Worsley, P. (1969). The Concept of Populism. In: G. Ionescu, E. Gellner (Eds.), Populism: Its Meanings and National Characteristics (pp. 212-250). London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson.
Urbinati, N. (2014). Democracy Disfigured: Opinion, Truth, and the People. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: Harvard University Press.
Urbinati, N. (2019). Me The People: How Populism Transforms Democracy. Cambridge , London: Harvard University Press.
Varentsova, O.B. (2014). Three waves of populism in Latin America. [In Russian]. Vestnik MGIMO-Universiteta, 6 (39), 153-160.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).