KARL JASPERS’ СRITIQUE OF EXISTENTIALISM. PHILOSOPHY OF EXISTENCE AND EXISTENTIALISM

HISTORY OF WORLD PHILOSOPHY

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/fd2023.04.125

Keywords:

philosophy of existence, existentialism, existence, elucidation of existence, Karl Jaspers, Jean-Paul Sartre

Abstract

In a non-German-speaking environment is Jaspers sometimes mistakenly called as an existentialist. But Jaspers saw himself as a philosopher of existence, and he sharply criticized existentialism. This error arose because of confusion in the translations of the names Existenzphilosophie and Existentialismus from German into other languages. The difference between these terms was actively discussed immediately after Sartre’s lecture on humanism, in which Sartre, as he thought, announced a new direction in philosophy — existentialism (Existentialisme), to which he also included Jaspers as a religious member of this direction. The purpose of paper is to investigate and analyze Jaspers’ criticism of existentialism and his rejection of it. Because long before Sart re’s lecture, Jaspers wrote about the false philosophical method of the investigation of human being as opposed to the true way — the elucidation of existence (Existenzerhellung), and also noted that he created a new word to denote this false method — existentialism (Existentialismus). While Jaspers understood the elucidation of existence as self-reflection and self-experience, which deepen in the experiences of boundary situations (Grenzsituationen), he considers existentialism as the knowledge of human being as a certain object among other objects. Already later — after Sartre’s lecture — Jaspers began to criticize existentialism as a direction that arose under the influence of the philosophy of existence and as its decline. Jaspers connected existentialism mainly with Sartre and outlined the main grounds of his criticism: existentialism is based on bare abstraction and Sartre’s main slogan — existence (of personality) precedes essence — is an evidence of this; existentialism uses a certain poetic vagueness of some statements, and is an attempt to overcome nihilism through nihilism itself; this philosophy denies the existence of any transcendent basis of human and world. For these reasons, Jaspers rejected existentialism, which is fundamentally different from the philosophy of existence.

Author Biography

Larysa MANDRYSHCHUK

Ukraine, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences (Ph.D.),Associate Professor of the Theory and History of Culture Department at the Faculty of PhilosophyIvan Franko National University of Lviv, 1, Universytetska Str. 1,  Lviv, 79000.

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Published

2023-12-21

How to Cite

MANDRYSHCHUK, L. (2023). KARL JASPERS’ СRITIQUE OF EXISTENTIALISM. PHILOSOPHY OF EXISTENCE AND EXISTENTIALISM: HISTORY OF WORLD PHILOSOPHY. Filosofska Dumka, (4), 125–137. https://doi.org/10.15407/fd2023.04.125

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