Targeted scientific research and transformation in the professional activity of the scientist

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/fd2021.01.149

Keywords:

target scientific research, «knowledge to order», basic researches, applied researches, transformations of a profession of a scientist, humanities of scientific research

Abstract

Modern science is increasingly focused on research that solves specific technological problems. In the world literature there are different, but generally similar, names for such studies. For example, German and Russian researchers use the term «problem-oriented research», the names  «mission-oriented research», research as a response to «great challenges» and «frontier research», «science mode 2» are also used. In Ukraine, particularly in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the name «targeted research programs» and «targeted scientific (scientific and technical) projects» are used.

The article analyzes features of targeted research and the status of the obtained knowledge. It emphasizes their direct involvement in the social sphere — economic, political, social relations in general, because they are the basis of modern technology and their development is interested in the general public — producers and consumers of material goods. The knowledge obtained in these studies is knowledge «to order», which requires a solution to the relationship between basic and applied research, the principles of professional activity of scientists, «academic freedoms», changes in epistemological, socio-humanitarian principles of science as a social institution.

In the professional activity of a scientist, the praxeologization of science requires an ori- entation on the humanity of the produced knowledge, which, in fact, is a combination of knowledge about nature with knowledge about human. In this case, the scientist must be an expert in related disciplines. The organizers of targeted research solve this situation through the collective implementation of research, or, as expressed by R. Florida, the use of «social intelligence». At the same time, the latter requires from the scientist, as a specialist, not only purely professional competencies but also individual psychological skills of work (creativity) in an interdisciplinary team (mutual assistance, tolerance, empathy, etc.) and interaction with the transdisciplinary community. Otherwise, the profession of a scientist becomes socially en- gaged in terms of competencies and activities, and the leader in the research team performs moderative rather than directive functions.

Although targeted research programs are becoming widespread, leading in solving urgent practical problems, but in the scientific field, a balance must be maintained between research «to order» and research that will be the basis for future development of science and society.

Author Biography

Larysa Ryzhko

Doctor of Sciences in Philosophy, professor, leading researcher at G.M. Dobrov Institute for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 60, Taras Shevchenko boulevard, Kyiv, 01032

References

Ardashkin, I.B. (2010). Philosophical foundations of problem-oriented research [In Russian]. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, Vol. 316, No. 6, 74-78.

Ardashkin, I.B. (2012). Ontological foundations of problem-oriented research [In Russian]. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, Vol. 320. No. 6, 56-63.

Cowen, T. (2013). Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation. Re- trieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Average-Over-Powering-America-Stagnation/ dp/0525953736

Dunbar, K. (1993). How Scientists Really Reason: Scientific Reasoning in Real-World Laboratories. URL: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/06b4/c3474bd8288886167e5077f7058587b3bb04.pdf.

European Commission - Press release (2019). Artificial intelligence: Commission takes forward its work on ethics guidelines. Brussels, 8 April 2019. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/ presscorner/detail/en/IP_19_1893.

Fichtner, B. (2002). Reflexive Learning, Questions Concerning the Contemporary Contextuali- zation of the Vygotskian Approach [In Russian]. In: Subject, cognition, activity (pp. 613- 632). Moscow: Canon+, OI «Rehabilitation».

Flink, T., Kaldewey, D. (2018). The Language of Science Policy in the Twenty-First Century. What Comes after Basic and Applied Research? www.researchgate.net/publication/324834576_ The_Language_of_Science_Policy_in_the_Twenty-First_Century_What_Comes_after_ Basic_and_Applied_Research.

https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv8bt0z7.15

Florida, R. (2018). Homo creativus. As a new class conquers the world [In Ukrainian]. Kyiv: Nash format.

Funtowicz, S.О., Ravetz, J.R. (1993). Science for the Post-normal Age. Futures, September, 739-755.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(93)90022-L

Gutner, G.B. (2012). Post-non-classical research: the communicative nature of practices [In Russian]. In: Post-non-classical practices: the experience of conceptualization (pp. 135-144). SPb.: Mir.

Georghiou, L., Tataj, D. , Celio, J., Giannini, S., Pavalkis, D., Verganti, R., Renda, A. (2018). Mission-oriented Research and Innovation Policy: A RISE Perspective. European Union. URL: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/61e742ed-2358-11e8-ac73-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-70556243.

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., Trow, M. (1994). The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: SAGE.

Hicks, D. (2015). Grand Challenges in US Science Policy Attempt Policy Innovation. Interna-tional Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 11 (1/2/3), 22-42.

https://doi.org/10.1504/IJFIP.2016.078379

Hotz, R. L. (2015). How Many Scientists Does It Take to Write a Paper? Apparently, Thousands. The Whall Street Journal, August. URL: https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-many-scien-tists-does-it-take-to-write-a-paper-apparently-thousands-1439169200.

Kasavin, I.T. (1998). Migration. Creativity. Text [In Russian]. SPb.: RHGI.

Krymskyi, S.B. (2003). Requests of philosophical meanings [In Ukrainian]. Kyiv: PARAPAN.

Mazzucato, M. (2018). Mission-Oriented Research & Innovation in the European Union. A prob- lem-solving approach to fuel innovation-led growth. Luxembourg: Publications Ofіce of the European Union.

Merton, R. (2006). Social theory and social structure [In Russian]. Moscow: AST.

Regulations on targeted research programs of the NAS of Ukraine and targeted scientific (scientific and technical) projects of the NAS of Ukraine (2018) [In Ukrainian]. Resolution of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 19.12.2018, No 340. URL: http://www.nas.gov. ua/legaltexts/Pages/regulation.aspx?ffn1=ActID&fft1=Eq&ffv1=P-181219-340.

Report on the activities of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2012 (2013) [In Russian]. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.

Report on the activities of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2019. (2020). Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.

Sawyer, R.K. (2006). Explaining Creativity. The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford University Press.

Schwab, K. (2019). The fourth industrial revolution. Forming the fourth industrial revolution [In Ukrainian]. Kharkiv: Family Leisure Club.

Voitsekhovich, V.E. (2012). Post-non-classical picture of the world and anthropism: towards re- thinking practice [In Russian]. In: Post-non-classical practices: experience of conceptualiza- tion (pp. 101-108). SPb.: Mir.

Zierhofer, W., Burger, P. (2007). Disentangling Transdisciplinarity: An Analysis of Knowledge Integration in Problem-Oriented Research. Science Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, 51-74.

https://doi.org/10.23987/sts.55219

Abstract views: 78

Published

2021-03-22

How to Cite

Ryzhko, L. (2021). Targeted scientific research and transformation in the professional activity of the scientist: PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE . Filosofska Dumka, (1), 149–161. https://doi.org/10.15407/fd2021.01.149

Metrics